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猫的表情

小猫的表情进化


在网上,萌萌的猫脸表情可能会让你着迷,但是,在现实生活中猫有表情吗?结论看起来好像不是很乐观。

 

这研究人员最近开发出一种复杂的猫面部表情指数。他们发现,无论是开心还是烦躁,猫的表情对于它是否被收养没有任何影响。相反,这些带毛的婴儿通过摩擦玩具和家具提高了他们找到家的机会。

但是为什么要研究猫脸呢?2013年,进化心理学家发现,比起其它类型的狗,经常扬眉的庇护犬被收养得更快。一只狗在遇到人时扬起眉毛20次,它找到家的速度大约是其同伴的两倍。研究人员得出结论说,抬起眉毛让年长的狗看起来像小狗一样友好,这一特点使得它们在人类几千年的驯养过程中对人类更有吸引力。同样,猫是否做同样的事情呢?

那些研究者开发了一种叫做猫面部动作编码系统的东西。该系统基于人类、黑猩猩、猕猴、长臂猿、猩猩和狗的类似程序,根据猫的肌肉结构和解剖结构,涵盖了猫可能做出的每个面部动作:15个面部动作,7个耳朵动作,以及涉及舌头、嘴唇的6个其他动作。鼻子、眼睑或瞳孔。

随后,科学家们根据对英国三个动物收容所的106只猫的访问,列出了一系列常见的面部表情和身体运动。接下来,他们追踪这些猫被收养的速度,寻找它们的面部表情、动作和收养速度之间的统计关联。

与狗不同的是,猫科动物因为面部表情而没有被采用得更快。然而,研究小组最近在《应用动物行为科学》杂志上报道说,经常在玩具和笔内家具上擦拭身体的猫被收养的速度比不被收养的猫快30%。

研究人员说,这意味着,与狗相比,猫面对人类的进化压力没有那么大。这可能是因它们被驯养比狗晚了几千年。丹尼斯·特纳,一位在瑞士苏黎世应用行为学和动物心理学研究所研究陪伴动物的进化生物学家,说这个实验与现实生活中的收养有点相似,所以在他确信之前,还需要做更多的工作。但是如果猫的表情起了很小的作用,他也不会感到惊讶。“我严重怀疑猫的脸部表情在驯养过程中是否会受到选择,”他说,因为人类让猫四处捕捉害虫,而不是做知己。他补充说:“如果说面部表情是被选择的话,那是在过去的200年里,在不同的纯种动物的发展过程中。”这些动物很少被收容所收养。

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